Types of Learning Disabilities
Learning disabilities (LDs) are neurological disorders that affect the brains ability to store, process, retrieve, or communicate information. They are invisible and lifelong. An LD often presents as weaknesses in listening, writing, speaking, reasoning, reading, mathematics, social skills, and memory.
People with learning disabilities often have above average intelligence, and can use compensations and accommodations to help them manage their LDs.
Common Types of Learning Disabilities
Area of difficulty: processing language
Common issues: reading, writing, and spelling.
People with dyslexia may flip letters, and have a hard time seeing and pronouncing words.
Area of difficulty: processing numbers, poor math skills, difficulty understanding concepts
Common issues: math, seeing numbers, understanding concepts
People with dyscalculia often have a hard time remembering math facts, and concepts. They can struggle understanding time and reading analog clocks. They often flip numbers and have a hard time counting by intervals.
Area of difficulty: written expression
Common issues: writing and spelling
People with dysgraphic often have messy printing. They struggle with spelling and can have a hard time expressing themselves in print. They may need help organizing their thoughts, and should use a computer when possible.
Area of difficulty: fine motor skills
Common issues: coordination, manual dexterity
People with dyspraxia struggle with movement that requires precision. They can struggle using scissors, drawing straight lines, drawing, and writing.
Auditory Processing Disorder
Area of difficulty: interpreting auditory information
Common issues: basic language development, reading
People with auditory processing disorders struggle with processing sound and often have difficulties anticipating how a speaker will end a sentence.
Visual Processing Disorder
Area of difficulty: interpreting visual information
Common issues: reading, writing, math
People with visual processing disorders may struggle with distinguishing between letters and words that are similar. They may misread letters such as “h” and “n”.
Other Related Disorders
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Area of difficulty: concentration and focus
Common issues: over-activity, distractability and impulsivity
People with ADHD can present in many different ways. Some struggle sitting still, while others may sit and day dream. They often loose interest quickly, and are easily distracted.